In particular, they make it possible to quantify actual evaporation from bare soil or actual evapotranspiration from soil covered by vegetation. Moreover, seepage from lysimeters can be collected, which allows an assessment of the water loss from a soil profile and thus groundwater recharge. The seepage water can be analyzed in the laboratory for its various constituents. Hence, lysimeters can be used to monitor the fate of solutes in soil. Weighable lysimeters can monitor the mass continuously and thus provide detailed information about water storage changes in the soil for any period n conjunction with rainfall and seepage measurements.
Lysimeters simulate the natural relation between soil, atmosphere, and plants and represent the link between studies in the laboratory and on the field scale. There is a tendency - particularly in Europe - that direct lysimetry methods are being used more and more for studying water and solute migration in soil.
• Detailed invasions of the water and solute balance forming the basis for highly accurate modeling of soil hydrological processes
• Lysimeter techniques establish as a standard method in environmental science
• Lysimeters are a common tool for studying the effect of the climate change on soil-water-plant-system
Gravitation lysimeters are used to measure parameters for the calculation of water and solute balances in soils. Due to the high-resolution weighing system, the input water fractions are measured with a resolution of 0,01 mm, including dew, rime, the water equivalent of snowfall, and small rates of evapotranspiration. In connection with the additional recording of the amounts of percolating water and precipitation it also permits the quantification of the water balance of the soil column.
The processes observed in a lysimeter without tension control often do not outright reflect the actual processes in the field. Another very important parameter for the processes in the soil is the temperature profile. The temperature does not only affect hydraulic processes, but also a lot of chemical and biological processes determining the soil genesis. Without regulation, the temperature profile in the lysimeter vessel is disturbed. The temperature-controlled tension lysimeter developed by UGT GmbH enables to control of both of these parameters in accordance with the actual values in the surrounding soil. Specific aims:
• Obtainment and coverage of realistic leaching water rates, by figuration of the lower basic conditions
• Coverage of the fluid and aerially stage of the leaching load without atmospheric interaction
• Biological and chemical processes under natural field temperature conditions
Is a composition of 8 lysimeters whit a surface area of 2 m2 each. The lysimeters are planted with up to 24 small trees. TDR-Probes enable the monitoring of the moisture gradient in the soil column. The growth of fine roots is tracked by rhizotrons, which are automatically captured by special cameras in observation tubes and deliver the first results about the so-far sparse investigated reason of fine roots on drought stress. The regulation of the natural precipitation on the test site is carried out by temporary mobile roofing. In the case of precipitation, it automatically closes and covers the lysimeters. After the end of the test (2 to 5 years) the soil columns will be excavated with the Lysimeter Soil Retriever (LSR) and sampled in layers to uncover the roots. This way versatile data about the spreading of the biomass (proportioning shoot/root) and root architecture are ascertainable.
The DryLab is used to simulate different future settings of climate change and to check the drought assimilation of defined tree species. An outdoor laboratory-like DryLab is a big advantage compared to an indoor laboratory because all environmental impacts except the managed one conform to the real outdoor conditions. According to the results, indicators for drought stress can be deduced, whereas critical values can be applied as warning levels for the wellbeing of trees at continuous forest monitoring. Furthermore, we get basic information about necessary test cultivations for different origins of main tree species, which allows a scientific adaption of cultivated forests to future climate changes and hence saves the versatile functions of a forest.
The current topics of invesgaons concerning the ecological roofs and urban tracks are new technological vegetaon systems in order to bind parculate maer (fine dust) and development of new substrates, vegetaon mats and ferlizer products. Plants such as succulents and xerophytes are used for extensive green roofs and trains because they are low growing and require less maintenance. Scienfic Measuring Tasks and Advantages of Green Roofs:
• Retardation of precipitation run-off from the roof, relief of canalization and water clearing systems
• Water retention (50 – 90%) of rainwater and successive return in the atmosphere by evaporation, thereby increasing the air humidity and cooling the surrounding air
• Decrease heat irradiation of buildings and train lines in the summer period
• Air pollution migration due to deposition of particulate maer (PM) on the rough vegetation surface, adsorption, binding, and uptake of some parts of PM.
• Reduction of sound reflection
• Migration of urban problems due to their positive optical appearance and environmental impact
• Improvement of urban space quality and its aesthetical worth
The groundwater lysimeter represents a system, which is sealed at the side edges and stands in connection with its environment at the upper and the lower edge. The lower edge is characterized by the groundwater inflow Gin and the groundwater discharge Gout. For low groundwater levels, this lysimeter type has free drainage comparable to a gravitation lysimeter. This system is specially developed for sites being highly influenced by groundwater like floodplains for example.
• The technical realization of this lysimeter type makes it possible to carry out scenario investigations by systematic variations of the inside water levels in the in- and outlet range and to simultaneously measure the corresponding parameters of the lateral water and solute flux.
• A combination of the investors at the lysimeter and in situ measurements is realized and well suited for the validation and calibration of mathematical simulation models.
The rising claim of cities and townships to minimize the environmental impact of their traffic infrastructure enforces the inclusion of renaturation in the planning and implementation of traffic routes. To prove the ecological and economical benefits of green spaces like parks, grass verges or the track bed natural on the hitherto existing qualitative valuations have to be backed up by exact measuring data. The Urban Track Lysimeter enables estimation and optimize the water retention characteristics of different substrate and vegetation systems in track beds. These lysimeters monitor the storage, infiltration, and evapotranspiration of precipitable water. Tensiometers determine the fraction of the water stored in the substrate layers that is available to plants. In addition to the water balance measurements, it is possible to carry out quality measurements to record solute flows out of and into the urban track such as dripped-down lubricants or fuels. The effect of nature on the micro climate of the track bed is determined by recording the humidity, the temperature in the air, and the temperature gradient in the track bed. Through this, it is possible to prove the attenuation of heat emission from the track bed surface by heat deprivation due to evaporation.
It is located in the forest botanical garden of Eberswalde northeast of Berlin. It comprises 10 root boxes, each with a surface area of 1 m2, a height of 2 m and embedded even with the soil surface. The root boxes are accessible by an underground corridor. Two side surfaces of each box are completely paned and enable the monitoring of the root zone of the plants and tree plantations. The new technical equipment of the root boxes, designed as weighable lysimeters, enables us to not only visually survey the roots but also to get information about the water balance and solute fluxes. The continuous non-destructive recording of the root and scion growth of many domestic and peregrine tree species provides a quantile registration of growth processes as well as an almost complete picture of the seasonal progression. These records are complemented by research into the seasonal dynamics of the carbon compounds of domestic and peregrine tree species. Altogether these experimental series are of special interest against the background of changes in climate and distribution of precipitation..
The Gas Migration Simulator has been designed for the close investigation of soil-gas migration processes under quasi-in situ conditions. Especially the soil-gas radon concentration can be used as an indicator for subsurface NAPL contamination. Because NAPL contamination gives rise to anomalous low soil-gas radon concentrations in its close vicinity. The reason for this decrease in the soil-gas radon concentration is the good solubility of radon in NAPLs, which enables the NAPLs to accumulate and ‘trap’ a part of the radon available in the soil pores.
With its own weight as the driving force, the vessel concurrently penetrates into carved soil and shears off the aforementioned excess in the process. If necessary, an additional force can be applied by the hydraulic cylinder on top of the frame. Because the vessel slides over a soil core, which is slightly larger than itself, a tight fit between soil and vessel results. After the desired depth is reached, the cutting tool stops rotating and the chisels are detached. This is necessary to accommodate the metal plate and the accompanying hydraulic pushing device for cutting the base of the monolith. Next, the monolith is severed at the bottom and the cutting plate le aached to the bottom of the vessel. Then a crane is employed to li the whole assembly out of the pit. With this cuttng technique, wall friction as the lysimeter vessel penetrates into the soil is small, so that the soil monolith is not disturbed. In addition, the extraction site is only minimally affected.
• Prevention of rim effects between the soil monolith and the lysimeter vessel using special soil-adapted instruments (chisel and shearing lamellas)
• No disturbance of the monolithic soil structure, like compression (no deformation) or changes of the microstructure of the soil through the application of the excavator shovel
• Axial guidance of the leveled lysimeter vessel down to the extraction depth, prevention of soil fractions
• Operation with extreme light and movable excavation tools, for the use in rough terrain, the rise of the productivity and cost savings
• Detecon of hindrance, e.g. stones, inclusions, or others under the use of online observation (with recording) and manual interaction in the chink
• Easy movable excavation tool, e.g. eases to react on detection of hindrance, which will detract the quality of the monolith (stones, inclusions etc.)
• Well visible soil profile, as the excavation pit is not damaged
• Possibility of soil mapping after lifting the monolith out of the pit (it is visible which soil horizons or soil layers are in the vessel)
• Minimal damage to the surrounding area by using the excavation tools and no need to dig out the area around the vessel
The UGT GmbH adapted this excavation technique to provide you solutions for all sizes of monoliths and for all kinds of soil. Standard sizes are soil columns with surface areas of 0,03 m2, 0,5 m2, 1 m2, and 2 m2. The most challenging task of the extraction procedure is the horizontal sliding of the lysimeter vessel through the natural fen. A modified cutting tool in front of the vessel assists in carving the soil monolith out of the peat, vertically on both sides and horizontally at the base. The unfilled lysimeter vessel is inserted at the extraction site into an already prepared starting pit and aligned to a guiding system (guide tracks) adjustable in three axes. During the cung process, this control device keeps the lysimeter vessel in its given position. The peat is sawed by cutting tools moving in opposite directions. Depending on local conditions, the guide tracks can be mounted on excavator mattresses to achieve additional stability. At the end of the lysimeter vessel, a hydraulic plunger supports the cutting procedure. Once the vessel is filled, the lysimeter is lied out of the extraction pit, the cutting tools are removed and the soil monolith is sealed with flange plates. The flanging is carried out in a slightly tangential position at the front of the lysimeter container to avoid any possible dislocation of the monolith. After this final step, the monolith is prepared for transport to its installation site.
The lysimeter vessel is box-shaped with the following dimensions: length 4,0 m, width 1,0 m, and depth 1,5 m, which is regarded as the maximum size considering the technical feasibility. The most challenging task of the extraction procedure is the horizontal sliding of the lysimeter vessel through the natural fen. A modified cutting tool in front of the vessel assists in carving the soil monolith out of the peat, vertically on both sides and horizontally at the base. The unfilled lysimeter vessel is inserted at the extraction site into an already prepared starting pit and aligned to a guiding system (guide tracks) adjustable in three axes. During the cutting process, this control device keeps the lysimeter vessel in its given position. The peat is sawed by cutting tools moving in opposite directions. Depending on local conditions, the guide tracks can be mounted on excavator mattresses to achieve additional stability. At the end of the lysimeter vessel, a hydraulic plunger supports the cutting procedure. Once the vessel is filled, the lysimeter is lied out of the extraction pit, the cutting tools are removed and the soil monolith is sealed with flange plates. The flanging is carried out in a slightly tangential position at the front of the lysimeter container to avoid any possible dislocation of the monolith. After this final step, the monolith is prepared for transport to its installation site
Additional to the horizontal retrieval technology UGT developed a vertical retrieval technique, particularly for hydromorphone and sub-hydro morphe soils. The lysimeter vessel is placed horizontally in the soil and encased by two cuttng tools, which move relatively against each other to apply a linear shear force to the soil. Together with the vacuum source at the top edge of the cutting tool, the cuttng edge prevents the unstable soil structure from overshooting and makes it possible to retrieve a stabilized soil column inside the lysimeter vessel. The vacuum can be adapted to the cutting depth.
LY-ATOM uses the dependency of sound speed on temperature and flows properties along the propagation path of acoustic signals to estimate these parameters. For this purpose, the speed of sound is calculated from travel me measurements along exactly known distances between sound sources and receivers. By measuring the speed of sound along different sound paths over a lysimeter surface and by using tomographic reconstruction techniques it is possible to estimate spatially resolved distributions of temperature and flow properties. From these data, components of the energy balance ‘Lysimeter – Atmosphere’ can be derived. The aim is to calculate components of the energy balance ‘Lysimeter – Atmosphere’. The main advantage is that no sensors on the surface of the lysimeter.
Lysimeters are very suitable for monitoring the migration and chemical reactions of soil contaminants. Especially in combination with innovative measuring equipment like the Mullyzer for online detection of contaminants in soil water and the Lysimeter Soil Retriever. Therefore the UGT GmbH holds many examples for lysimeters on contaminated sites like Homécourt or Böhlen. In 2005 and 2006 the UGT GmbH provided the DOW Chemicals in Böhlen within the major ecological project „SOW-Böhlen“ with four specialized lysimeters. Each with a surface area of 1m² and a length of 2 m. To survey the influence of the different soil layers the lysimeters were cut and put together out of different soil layers from up to 5 m depth. The monoliths were cut up to the desired depth of the first layer then the soil above the next designated layer was excavated, the surface of the new soil layer and the bottom of the monolith were prepared to provide a natural connection between the two soil layers and then the next layer was cut to the designated depth. This way four completely different soil models with naturally structured soils could be realized in the four lysimeters (see scheme below). Monolith 1 shows the natural sequence of soil layers just in smaller dimensions. For monolith 2 the clay layer was le out to survey the influence of this layer. For monoliths 3 and 4 the natural top layer was replaced by a gravel layer to test the influence of the top layer and vegetation. And again one of the two monoliths is cut with the clay layer and for the other one, the clay layer was le out.
• comparison of chemical and biological soil functions, which are affected after long-term experiments
• clarifying the lysimeter vessel effect on the soil (e.g. side effects)
• changes on the topsoil, e.g. packing, root distribution, aeration, water conductance, biological actives
• quantifying changes in soil physical parameters in long-term experiments
In the course of the studies, the lysimeters act more or less as a “black box”. Usually, the soil material is identified and analyzed at the beginning of the experiments. But there is also a strong need to analyze the soil without disturbance of the soil structure after the experiments in order to obtain information about spatial and structural changes within the soil profile. The new technique of the Lysimeter Soil Retriever for the first me enables studies on the heterogeneous migration of percolating water, changes of soil structure as well as soil organic maer (SOM), and biomass distribution, as well as the distribution of mycorrhiza and microbes in different depths on intact soil profiles. The main target of using the LSR is the preparation of an intact soil monolith from the field lysimeter and the immediate dissection into slices to enable direct sampling of its soil environment at several depths. Distribution and composition of SOM, values, soil porosity, as well as degradation of PAH, were only a few parameters, which are determined at the different soil depths.
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